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Caligula, the great-grandson of Augustus, was the third emperor of Rome. His name actually was Gaius, with Caligula being a nickname he hated later in life. In fact, hate was a common theme of his rule (37-41 AD).
The third declension is a little bit more varied than many choose to admit. Along with the standard endings (which belong to the consonantal stems of the third declension) are those that are used with third declension words ending in an -i in their stem. These are the third declension i-stems, and they aren't *that* different from the third declension consonantal stems.
nouns third declension
In order to punish or motivate poorly performing units (legions, cohorts), the Romans sometimes practiced decimation, which effectively wiped out 10% of their troops. But today, the root word behind decimation, decimus, tenth, is largely lost on English speakers.
How much did teachers make in the ancient world? Since the Romans valued education, it had to have been more than the ancient sports figures, right?
In the first eighty lines of the Aeneid, we are introduced to our themes, the major conflict in the work, and briefly to our main hero. This video is the introduction to a set of seven videos that discuss this great work of literature in the original Latin. Be sure to click on the links at the end to be taken to the specific video of choice.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus was the Roman hero of the Second Punic War, defeating Hannibal Barca at the battle of Zama in 202 BC. The Romans connected the name Scipio with words referring to lightning and ruling, since the Scipios were born rulers.
The demonstrative iste, ista, istud has a lot in common with its cousin ille, illa, illud: both mean "that", both are declined in an almost identical fashion. But iste carries with it a second person nature that sometimes can be negative. That brother of yours, that video of yours...
adjectives feminine masculine neuter nouns
How do you remove the memory of a particularly bad emperor from the history books? Or what if your brother is just so annoying that you can't stand the sight of him anymore, and don't want to share power? You perform a damnatio memoriae, erase all inscriptions, destroy all public images, and pretend as if he never existed.
The fourth declension neuter is essentially just two words: cornu and genu. These are the only ones you'll ever see really, and this video covers their declension and use.
fourth declension neuter nouns
The conjugation of a verb in the perfect passive subjunctive requires just a small change from the indicative mood of the perfect passive. Just change the form of sum to sim (or its other forms for other persons and numbers), and you're all set.
passive voice subjunctive mood verbs