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Just a week ago, I released a tool that helps you focus on core Latin vocabulary, the most common words that show up in Latin. I'm happy to announce a update to the tool that gives a user rating (a time independent measure), item analysis, and correct answers. Enjoy!
What's new on this channel for this year? More videos, more updates at hexameter.co and aeneid.co. And, at least for this video, a talking Colosseum.
This is a short video with a two more examples from Caesar's Gallic War of how Latin uses et, atque, and -que to describe differing levels of conjunction. Please check out my earlier video on these conjunctions for a more thorough explanation of this topic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5qLUkb4Ctw
One of the bits of Latin pronunciation that tends to get my own students is the consonantal i. This video intends to give tips on how to recognize when i is a consonant or a vowel.
Core vocabulary are the most important words of a language. If you master these, you'll be able to read upwards of 70% of all words in a Latin work. In this video, I talk about a tool that I created to measure your understanding of Latin's core words. There's both practice and a competitive quiz feature.
The Latin prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and a noun object in the correct case. This video covers the basics of prepositions and their phrases, including those prepositions that take the accusative, those that take the ablative, and those that take both. It’s a good idea to learn a lot of these prepositions - they are also used as prefixes on verbs, and you’ll be able to understand the meaning of many new verbs simply by breaking apart the preposition-prefix from the base verb. This video introduces you to prepositions that take the ablative, like ab, cum, dē, ex, prō, and sine, those that take the accusative, like ad, ante, apud, circum, inter, ob, per, post, prope, and trāns, and those that take both the ablative and accusative, like in and sub.
cases introduction nouns
The adverb is one of the main parts of speech in both English and Latin, and the similarity doesn't stop there. In both languages, we can form adverbs from adjectives, both with the -ly in English and the -ē or -ter in Latin. This video covers what the adverb looks like and how it behaves in Latin (and English). Be sure to add your #notanadverb finds in the comments below!
When you look in a Latin dictionary, you'll find just a handful of words that begin with the letter K. Why is this? The answer lies in old Latin, Etruscan, and the origins of the alphabet in Greece.
Nouns can be people, places, things, concepts, quantities, and many other things. So why not define a noun by its role in the sentence, rather than just by naming its constituent parts? You'll find that a noun like this is far more descriptive and a little bit more interesting.
background introduction nouns
There are three different types of yes and no questions in Latin: those that expect a yes answer, those a no answer, and those without any expectation whatsoever. This video covers how Latin makes these types of questions. It's either the words num, nonne, or just -ne.
Latin, like some of its modern daughter languages, doesn't often require a subject in the sentence if it is obvious in context. This is especially true since each verb ending is different in both spelling and sound. Learn to anticipate and understand the subject just based on the verb ending!
introduction nouns verbs
Not all verbs end in -t, and as you move from the first to second to third person, the ending changes with the subject. This video covers the idea of person in verbs and the singular present tense endings, -o, -s, and -t.
active voice indicative mood introduction nouns verbs
This video shows how you can turn a sentence with a third person singular verb into one with a third person plural verb. It's not just about the verb - you have to make sure that the subject is also plural.
active voice introduction nouns verbs
There's more to Latin pronunciation than just knowing how consonants, vowels, and diphthongs sound. This video shows you how to identify and say syllables correctly, and this topic will soon be extended in a second video on accent. This also has an impact in poetry and how to determine the longs and short of a poetic line.
Adjectives add color and pizzaz to a sentence, and you can't have a Cicero without adjectives. This video covers the basic essentials to learning about how adjectives work in Latin, while leaving the specifics about declension for other videos.
In Latin, there are three (and more) different ways to express the simple English word "and". Each of these, et, atque, and -que, show different levels of connectiveness.
I, me, you, we, us, all of these are personal pronouns, and Latin has different forms for these words depending on how they are used in the sentence. Yes, the pronoun is declined too. But don't worry, the forms of ego, tu, nos, and vos aren't so different from each other.
cases feminine introduction masculine neuter nouns
The accent in classical Latin is easy to learn once you have mastered the art of syllables. This video not only covers where to put your stress in the word, but also dives deep into the heavy and light bits of syllables.
Everyone hates them, but you can't do the Latin verb without them - they are the principal parts. Sure, it seems like there is no pattern to these verbs, but there are some trends that carry across all verbs. Watch this video for more insight, but unfortunately there's no shortcut to just memorizing them for each verb until you get the hang of them. This video covers textbooks which have the fourth principal part as the perfect passive participle.
background introduction verbs
The irregular verb sum, esse, is Latin's most important verb (not to mention the most common word in the entire language). But it's irregular, and that's a problem, right? Not if you understand how it got its irregularities. This video gives a good understanding of how sum, esse, works in the wild, and how it got its unusual forms.
active voice indicative mood introduction irregular verbs verbs
What are tenses actually? This video covers the basic foundation of what makes up a tense, and relates it to the study of English and Latin.
background introduction verbs
Latin is easy once you overcome the first major hurdle: the difference between the nominative and accusative cases. Yes, Latin words change their endings! But this very fact makes Latin easier to understand - you know, once you understand it. And on the very basic level, most of Latin boils down to subjects (nominatives), objects (accusatives) and verbs.
cases introduction nouns
Before you begin to learn Latin, it's probably best to review some of the more basic concepts of grammar in English. This video covers the more difficult parts of grammar to understand: transitive, intransitive, and linking verbs, and subjects and direct objects. (N.B., there is a typo at 6:20, controler = controller. It must have been my French.)
Latin sentences tend to have an order different from what most English speakers are familiar with. Latin likes a touch of suspense by placing the verb at the end of the sentence. But it's not so strange, since more languages have Latin's word order (Subject-Object-Verb) than English's (Subject-Verb-Object).
introduction nouns verbs
Unlike English, Latin is an inflected language (which means that the endings of nouns change based on its role in the sentence) and divides its nouns into groups called declensions. Each declension has predictable and fixed patterns for changing endings to go along with the changing grammar. This video discusses at a very basic level what exactly declensions are and how you can identify the declension of a noun given just the nominative and accusative cases.
Before you begin to learn Latin, it's probably best to review some of the more basic concepts of grammar in English. This video covers the essentials: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.
The vowel in Latin is the most important part of pronunciation. This video covers the difference between long and short vowels, along with diphthongs (everyone's favorite word).
Trilling your R is just hard, especially for many English speakers, and I teach one of the ways you can achieve a trilled R. Don't get frustrated if you can't do it right the first time. Trilling takes practice, but most people can achieve this trill with enough time and patience. Good luck!