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We continue learning about verbal nouns and adjectives by exploring the use of gerunds and gerundives in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative cases. The gerund is a noun and the gerundive is an adjective, and their translation (especially that of the gerundive) can be a bit more idiomatic than literal. This video will discuss the differences between these two forms, when Latin prefers to use each, and how we can show purpose with these words.
91 rules of grammar adjectives nouns verbs
The dative case is often the third case you will learn when you begin studying Latin. While the nominative case is used for the verb's subject and the accusative case for the verb's direct object, the dative case is often used as the verb's indirect object. This video will explore this use of the dative, which is often translated into English with the preposition "to". In addition, we will also look at instances where the dative is translated with "for", the so called dative of reference.
Participles in Latin have three tenses: present, perfect, and future. But these terms can be misleading, because they don't refer to the absolute time of the participle, but how the participle time relates to the tense of the main verb. The present participle shows an action that is in progress when the main verb occurs (some call it "same time"). The perfect participle shows an action that is already completed when the main verb happens (some call this "time before"). The future participle shows an action that is yet to occur when the main verb happens (some call this "time after"). But while these tense names can be confusing, the more you work with participles, the easier they get to understand.
91 rules of grammar adjectives participles
The Romans had many different ways to find out the future. Perhaps the most disgusting involved looking at the entrails, or guts (like the liver), of a sacrificial animal. This was the job of the haruspex, and this practice came to the Romans via the Etruscans, even if the practice itself was widespread throughout the Mediterranean and Near East.
There are four tenses of the subjunctive (present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect), but in any given sentence, you have just two to choose from. Welcome to the concept of sequence of tenses, which exposes the relativistic nature of the subjunctive mood, where the present and imperfect subjunctive show an action happening at the same time as the main verb, while the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive show an action that is already completed when the main verb takes place. This video will teach you how to know what each tense means, and how to parse and Latin sentence to understand this relationship between the main and subordinate clase.
91 rules of grammar subjunctive mood verbs
The future passive participle, also known as the gerundive, is used in the passive periphrastic in order to express obligation or necessity (often with a dative of agent), and also in gerundive phrases. This video explores how this participle is formed and how it is used with specific and detailed examples.
adjectives participles passive voice verbs
The Latin prepositional phrase consists of a preposition and a noun object in the correct case. This video covers the basics of prepositions and their phrases, including those prepositions that take the accusative, those that take the ablative, and those that take both. It’s a good idea to learn a lot of these prepositions - they are also used as prefixes on verbs, and you’ll be able to understand the meaning of many new verbs simply by breaking apart the preposition-prefix from the base verb. This video introduces you to prepositions that take the ablative, like ab, cum, dē, ex, prō, and sine, those that take the accusative, like ad, ante, apud, circum, inter, ob, per, post, prope, and trāns, and those that take both the ablative and accusative, like in and sub.
cases introduction nouns
The infinitive, which often has its subject in the accusative case, can take a nominative subject in place of an imperfect tense verb. This is known as the historical infinitive because it is often found in the writers of history to show a vivid reporting of actions. That said, the historical infinitive is found in works of all genres, from Vergil to Plautus to Sallust. Its origins are unclear, but we may understand the historical infinitive by thinking about it as a noun in apposition to another noun.
91 rules of grammar infinitives verbs
The relative clause, which is introduced by the pronoun qui, quae, quod (who, which), is likely the most common subordinate clause in all of Latin. It even makes an appearance in the first line of Vergil's Aeneid, and in the first sentence of Caesar's Gallic War. This video gives a introduction to its declension and use in a basic Latin sentence.
Indirect discourse (or more specifically indirect statement) is a hugely important topic in Latin, and a complicated one at that. This video covers how the infinitive is used as the main action in an indirect statement, along with a head verb and subject accusative, and the basic idea that the infinitive tense is relative to the main verb. And in accordance with its importance, this topic is covered in several other videos throughout this rules series.
91 rules of grammar infinitives