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A proviso is a type of condition that must be fulfilled for the event of the main clause to happen. Latin introduces a proviso clause with one of three conjunctions, dum, modo, or dummodo (a combination of the other two words), and the verb in the proviso clause must be in the subjunctive mood. We can translate each of these with the simple "provided that". This video will explore this clause in its different forms, including negative provisos, as well as the origin of this clause.
91 rules of grammar subjunctive mood
The supine is a fourth declension verbal noun that is almost entirely unique to Latin. We commonly see it as the fourth principal part of a verb, and it is found in only two cases, the accusative and ablative. This video discusses the ablative supine, also known as the supine in -ū, which is found after certain nouns and adjectives to show respect or specification. Is it actually ablative? Well, that's a topic for debate!
91 rules of grammar nouns verbs
The supine is a fourth declension verbal noun that is almost entirely unique to Latin. We commonly see it as the fourth principal part of a verb, and it is found in only two cases, the accusative and ablative. This video discusses the accusative supine, also known as the supine in -um, which is found after verbs of motion to express purpose.
91 rules of grammar nouns verbs
Where does the magical word ABRACADABRA come from? Well, 2nd century AD Latin, perhaps, if not from an earlier and more eastern source. The magic of this word comes from dispelling fevers, with a clever disappearing act of its own. Abracadabra, hocus pocus, make this fever get away from us!
We continue learning about verbal nouns and adjectives by exploring the use of gerunds and gerundives in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative cases. The gerund is a noun and the gerundive is an adjective, and their translation (especially that of the gerundive) can be a bit more idiomatic than literal. This video will discuss the differences between these two forms, when Latin prefers to use each, and how we can show purpose with these words.
91 rules of grammar adjectives nouns verbs
The dative case is often the third case you will learn when you begin studying Latin. While the nominative case is used for the verb's subject and the accusative case for the verb's direct object, the dative case is often used as the verb's indirect object. This video will explore this use of the dative, which is often translated into English with the preposition "to". In addition, we will also look at instances where the dative is translated with "for", the so called dative of reference.
Participles in Latin have three tenses: present, perfect, and future. But these terms can be misleading, because they don't refer to the absolute time of the participle, but how the participle time relates to the tense of the main verb. The present participle shows an action that is in progress when the main verb occurs (some call it "same time"). The perfect participle shows an action that is already completed when the main verb happens (some call this "time before"). The future participle shows an action that is yet to occur when the main verb happens (some call this "time after"). But while these tense names can be confusing, the more you work with participles, the easier they get to understand.
91 rules of grammar adjectives participles
The Romans had many different ways to find out the future. Perhaps the most disgusting involved looking at the entrails, or guts (like the liver), of a sacrificial animal. This was the job of the haruspex, and this practice came to the Romans via the Etruscans, even if the practice itself was widespread throughout the Mediterranean and Near East.
There are four tenses of the subjunctive (present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect), but in any given sentence, you have just two to choose from. Welcome to the concept of sequence of tenses, which exposes the relativistic nature of the subjunctive mood, where the present and imperfect subjunctive show an action happening at the same time as the main verb, while the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive show an action that is already completed when the main verb takes place. This video will teach you how to know what each tense means, and how to parse and Latin sentence to understand this relationship between the main and subordinate clase.
91 rules of grammar subjunctive mood verbs
The future passive participle, also known as the gerundive, is used in the passive periphrastic in order to express obligation or necessity (often with a dative of agent), and also in gerundive phrases. This video explores how this participle is formed and how it is used with specific and detailed examples.
adjectives participles passive voice verbs