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Even though "river" looks similar to "rival", they are both derived from different Latin words. And those ultimate Latin words are actually unrelated. This short video looks at the origins of these English words.
The personal pronouns nos and vos have two different genitive plurals. Huh, that's interesting. This video covers when to use nostri/vestri and when to use nostrum/vestrum. It's not as complicated as it looks, but it helps to know your uses of the genitive.
91 rules of grammar nouns
Synchysis (Synchesis, Synchisis) is the disarrangement of words, often in A-B-A-B order. Latin can do this because cases matter far more than word order. Synchysis is similar to chiasmus (A-B-B-A order), and often the two are confused on tests. Oh, and never underestimate the power of the Golden Line.
figures of speech
The third rule of Latin grammar is that some adjectives describe just part of their noun. These adjectives are primarily superlatives, like summus or ultimus, but also include medius, ceterus, and reliquus. It's best to translate them with "of" or "part of".
91 rules of grammar adjectives
The word septentriones is an interesting Latin word for "the north". Caesar often uses this word. It's origins are unclear, and we learn from Varro that it relates to the seven stars of the Big Dipper, which the Romans referred to as the Seven Oxen.
The second rule of Latin grammar is that adjectives will agree with the nouns they describe in case, number, and gender. But this rule can lead to some interesting situations, and allows for great flexibility in Latin word order. From here comes some of the great beauty of poetry.
91 rules of grammar adjectives nouns
After the Trojans have discovered a wooden horse on the beach, Laocoon runs down from Troy and issues stern warnings about trusting the horse and the Greeks. Check out aeneid.co for more videos on the Aeneid!
The first rule of Latin grammar is that two nouns that refer to the same thing are going to be in the same case. This is called apposition, and it's commonly used with names and titles (like king). This video explores how Latin uses apposition.
91 rules of grammar nouns
There is a set of adjectives in the first and second declension that doesn't quite follow the standard set of rules. We call these pronominal adjectives, because they function more like pronouns than describers. But you can refer to them as the Naughty Nine, or with the mnemonic UNUS NAUTA.
adjectives feminine first declension masculine neuter second declension
Starting next week, I will be releasing a new series called "91 Rules", in which I will review the most basic and essential parts of Latin grammar. Stay tuned!
91 rules of grammar