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As we continue exploring indirect speech in Latin, it's important to think about the tense of the verb / infinitive in an indirect statement. Infinitives have only three tenses, and we need to think about these tenses as reflecting relative rather than absolute time. So a present infinitive shows an action happening at the same time as the head verb, a perfect infinitive an action has is already complete with the head verb occurs, and a future infinitive an action that has yet to happen.
91 rules of grammar infinitives
After the storm, Aeneas and his seven ships finally arrive at a safe harbor in Africa. This section has our first ekphrasis as Vergil describes the geography of the place in vivid detail.
Temporal clauses are those that relate to time, and in Latin these clauses exclusively have a verb in the indicative mood. This video will cover examples of such clauses, especially those introduced by postquam, ubi, ut, and simul atque, all of which mean "after" or "when".
91 rules of grammar indicative mood verbs
The supine is a fourth declension verbal noun that is almost entirely unique to Latin. We commonly see it as the fourth principal part of a verb, and it is found in only two cases, the accusative and ablative. This video discusses the ablative supine, also known as the supine in -ū, which is found after certain nouns and adjectives to show respect or specification. Is it actually ablative? Well, that's a topic for debate!
91 rules of grammar nouns verbs
Some compound verbs (and by some, I mean four) can take two different accusatives, with the second accusative dependent on the prepositional prefix at the beginning of the verb. This rule is commonly seen with verbs compounded with trans, and Caesar especially likes to use this when crossing rivers and such. But be careful, this rule is "some verbs" and "sometimes", since even these verbs don't always follow this rule.
91 rules of grammar nouns
The word septentriones is an interesting Latin word for "the north". Caesar often uses this word. It's origins are unclear, and we learn from Varro that it relates to the seven stars of the Big Dipper, which the Romans referred to as the Seven Oxen.
Safe in Africa, Aeneas decides to search for his men. Failing to see them, he does catch sight of three stags, and goes deer hunting. Aeneas provides meat for his men and begins to calm their sorrows with words.
If you want to buy something for a couple of bucks, in Latin you'd use the ablative case. This is similar to a use of the genitive, called the genitive of value, although we use the ablative for more definitive prices. And in this video, we learn about the favorite phrase of many a Latin student, floccī nōn faciō, "I don't give a hoot" (or "I don't care at all"). Let's hope you do about Latin and this video!
91 rules of grammar cases nouns
In the last two videos, I've been covering verbs that take two accusatives, and this is the final video on that topic: verbs of teaching and showing can take two different objects, one of the person being taught/shown, and one of the thing being taught/shown. I am teaching you (acc of person) Latin (acc of thing).
91 rules of grammar nouns verbs
When does a subordinate use the subjunctive mood? This video looks at some examples that rely on the authority of the information presented. When the speaker or writer is the source, we use the indicative. But when someone else is the source of our information, well, that's when we use the subjunctive mood.
91 rules of grammar subjunctive mood